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The syntax of a type declaration within a record structure is identical to that of a normal Fortran type declaration statement: it includes a data type (for example, INTEGER), one or more names of variables or arrays; and optionally, one or more data initialization values.

The following rules and behavior apply to type declarations in record structures:

o %FILL can be specified in place of a field name to leave space in a record for purposes such as alignment. This creates an unnamed field.

%FILL can have an array declarator; for example:


Unnamed fields cannot be initialized. For example, the following statement is invalid and generates an error message:

INTEGER*4 %FILL /1980/

o Initial values can be supplied in field declaration statements. These initial values are supplied for all records that are declared using this structure. Fields not initialized will have undefined values when variables are declared by means of RECORD statements. Unnamed fields cannot be initialized; they are always undefined.

o Field names must always be given explicit data types. The IMPLICIT statement has no effect on statements within a structure declaration.

o All Fortran data types are allowed in field declarations.

o Any required array dimensions must be specified in the field declaration statements. DIMENSION statements cannot be used to define field names.

o Adjustable or assumed sized arrays and passed-length CHARACTER declarations are not allowed in field declarations.

o Field names within the same declaration level must be unique, but an inner structure declaration (substructure declaration) can include field names used in an outer structure declaration without conflict.


A field within a structure can itself be a structured item composed of other fields, other structures, or both. You can declare a substructure in two ways:

o By nesting structure declarations within other structure or union declarations (with the limitation that you cannot refer to a structure inside itself at any level of nesting).

One or more field names must be defined in the STRUCTURE statement for the substructure because all fields in a structure must be named. In this case, the substructure is being used as a field within a structure or union.

Field names within the same declaration nesting level must be unique, but an inner structure declaration can include field names used in an outer structure declaration without conflict.

%FILL can be specified in place of a field name to leave space in a record for purposes such as alignment.

o By using a RECORD statement that specifies another previously defined record structure, thereby including it in the structure being declared.


A union declaration is a multistatement declaration defining a data area that can be shared intermittently during program execution by one or more fields or groups of fields. A union declaration must be within a structure declaration. A union declaration is initiated by a UNION statement and terminated by an END UNION statement. Enclosed within these statements are two or more map declarations, initiated and terminated by MAP and END MAP statements. Each unique field or group of fields is defined by a separate map declaration.

A union declaration takes the following form:

UNION mdcl [mdcl] ... [mdcl] END UNION

Where "mdcl" represents:

MAP fdcl [fdcl] ... [fdcl] END MAP

fdcl Is any declaration or combination of declarations of substructures, unions, or type declarations.

As with normal Fortran type declarations, data can be initialized in field declaration statements in union declarations. However, if fields within multiple map declarations in a single union are initialized, the data declarations are initialized in the order in which the statements appear. As a result, only the final initialization takes effect and all the preceding initializations are overwritten.

The size of the shared area established for a union declaration is the size of the largest map defined for that union. The size of a map is the sum of the sizes of the fields declared within it.

As the variables or arrays declared in map fields in a union declaration are assigned values during program execution, the values are established in a record in the field shared with other map fields in the union. The fields of only one of the map declarations are defined within a union at any given point in the execution of a program. However, if you overlay one variable with another smaller variable, that portion of the initial variable is retained that is not overlaid. Depending on the application, the retained portion of an overlaid variable may or may not contain meaningful data and can be used at a later point in the program.

Manipulating data using union declarations is similar to the effect of using EQUIVALENCE statements. The difference is that data entities specified within EQUIVALENCE statements are concurrently associated with a common storage location and the data residing there; with union declarations you can use one discrete storage location to alternately contain a variety of fields (arrays or variables).

With union declarations, only one map declaration within a union declaration can be associated at any point in time with the storage location that they share. Whenever a field within another map declaration in the same union declaration is referenced in your program, the fields in the prior map declaration become undefined and are succeeded by the fields in the map declaration containing the newly referenced field.

In the following example, the structure WORDS_LONG is defined. This structure contains a union declaration defining two map fields. The first map field consists of three INTEGER*2 variables (WORD_0, WORD_1, and WORD_2), and the second, an INTEGER*4 variable, LONG:



PARAMETER statements: PARAMETER statements can appear in a structure declaration, but cannot be given a data type within the declaration block. Consider the following:


In this example, the INTEGER*4 statement does not provide the data type for PARAMETER constant P, but instead declares a record field P in structure ABC. The following PARAMETER statement declares a new, different symbol that is given the implicit data type for identifiers beginning with the letter P.

Type declarations for PARAMETER symbolic names must precede the PARAMETER statement and be outside of a STRUCTURE declaration, as follows:


For more information on PARAMETER statements, see STATEMENTS PARAMETER in this Help file.